Chad stated that the current extension of the non-application of TRIPS provisions, with the exception of Articles 3, 4 and 5 (concerning domestic treatment, most-favoured-nation and multilateral agreements for the acquisition or maintenance of protection), would expire on 1 July 2021. 90 In the current technological opportunities of the least developed countries, it is generally difficult to predict whether the intellectual property system could play a role in stimulating the capacity of developing countries to develop and produce medicines for neglected diseases. The issue of R&D funding has a long history at WHO, where it has been the subject of tough negotiations. Generally speaking, members agree that there is a market failure that does not provide a financial incentive for companies to invest in research on neglected diseases, although members have been divided for years on how to solve it. The WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (MHC) 126 has stated that a significant injection of additional public funds into health services, infrastructure and research is needed to meet the health needs of developing countries. He considered that in the absence of a large market, patent protection provides little incentive for disease research in developing countries.127 WHA 2012 welcomed a CEWG report on the adoption of a possible R&D contract and sustainable funding of negligent diseases. However, differences of opinion between the parties on issues related to the adoption of an R&D contract have led it to move away from the list of possible approaches. The CEWG resolution contains three areas for action: the establishment of a Global Health R&D Observatory, the establishment of demonstration projects, and the development of norms and standards to improve data collection on health sector research and development128 on access to medicines. 129 Extensive compulsory licensing can be counterproductive in encouraging investment and technology transfer in the pharmaceutical sector, and the lack of innovative technological skills in most LDCs will prevent local pharmaceutical companies from using compulsory licences to produce cheaper medicines. . . .